Bulletin Number 11. July 31st, 2014
|Dawit Abate (Ph.D.)
Mushroom consumption is a common practice among many ethnic groups of south and southwest Ethiopia. Rural people appreciate mushrooms more than urban dwellers. Moreover, older consumers value mushrooms more than the young. Thus, reliable information on traditional use of wild mushrooms in Ethiopia is obtained from rural senior citizens. On the other hand, mushrooms are not highly valued in the central highlands. There are only a few local names for the many hundreds of species of mushrooms found in the region. In Amharic, the terms Enguday and Yejib tila are used for mushrooms. Yejib tila, which literally means, "shadow of the hyena" is a negative term. This seems to be based on the belief that mushrooms appear in places where the animal's shadow appeared indicating that growth of mushrooms is somewhat mysterious.
College of Natural Science,
Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
In indigenous forests, edible mushrooms species of Macrolepiota, Auricularia, Armillaria, Pholiota, and Coprinus occur often in abundance. Several species of Macrolepiota and Agaricus are common in highland grazing areas. Mushrooms associated with termites, Termitomyces spp, are diverse and collected by all ethnic groups and are considered to have the best aroma and taste among edible mushrooms. Mushrooms found in exotic plantations such as pinus and cupressus remain unknown to the local people and are not collected for use. The most common poisonous mushroom is Chlorophyllum molybidites, a mushroom similar to other edible members of the Agaricacea (Ash 1977) and is difficult for local people to distinguish from edible look-alikes.
It is apparent that wild mushroom consumption supplements the nutritional needs of local people. The time period in which wild mushrooms grow coincides with periods of grain scarcity where food grain constitutes the principal dietary source. It is often women who are responsible for gathering mushrooms, but children are also involved in the collection of small types such as Termitomyces microcarpus.
Based on a limited survey we made during the last several years, little traditional (indigenous) knowledge exits on utilization of mushrooms for medicinal purposes in Ethiopia. However, extensive use of Laetiporus sufureus for the purpose of easing child birth is commonly practiced in Kaffa region. The powder of the mushroom is kept in some village households. It was interesting to observe that edible and medicinal mushrooms are available in the local markets in Bonga and Assosa towns during the rainy season. Studies on nutritional and medicinal values of wild mushrooms of Ethiopia is well underway (Zewdu et al. 2013)
The mushroom flora of Ethiopia is little known and not systematically documented so ethnomycological information is lacking. Both areas of study and research would benefit from collaboration with experts from abroad.
It is our experience, from the limited surveys we made, to note that local people do not believe that mushrooms can be cultivated. We found that local people are eager to know the method of growing mushrooms compared with cultivation of sorghum, maize and millet. It is their belief that mushrooms do not have seeds and thus cannot be cultivated yet they have accepted cultivated mushrooms for consumption.
Mushroom research and development is a relatively recent activity in Ethiopia. The main aims of the research are to develop appropriate methods of spawn making. Abate (1998, 2006) evaluate suitability of agricultural residues (grass/cereal straw, cotton seed waste, coffee waste, corn cobs, saw dust, cattle/horse dung, etc.) for cultivation and to provide training courses for mushroom cultivation (Abate 1998, 2010).
The bioconversion efficiency of a few important cultivated mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus, Lentinula edodes, Agaricus bisporus) on agricultural and agro-industrial residues native to Ethiopia were determined. The feasibility of growing mushrooms at ambient conditions and construction of simple and low cost mushroom growing houses made of local materials were demonstrated at local scientific workshops in the College of Natural Science, Addis Ababa University.
The training courses offered were initiated by non-government organizations with the aim of job creation for young people. Based on the outcomes of research and the skills developed through training of interested individuals, small-scale mushroom growing enterprises were established (Abate 2010). In all cases, by using commonly available containers such as bamboo baskets, clay pots and wooden boxes enabled cost effective and simple methods of mushroom growing. A few commercial mushroom spawn suppliers also appeared with the objective to provide quality grain spawn.
Small-scale mushroom enterprises then were established and began to supply fresh edible mushrooms, particularly the oyster (P. ostreatus) mushroom to local markets. Though efforts on growing the button (A. bisporus) and shiitake (L. edodes), is underway, the success story is based on the oyster mushroom. This mushroom grows fast, grows on a variety of agricultural residues and tolerates a wider range of environmental conditions.
Low relative humidity during the long dry season is the most important problem facing growers using production houses without climate control. To reduce the negative effect and make the growing process more optimal during the dry season, it was found that using traditional clay pots (fig 1) is a better option as clay pots keep the internal humidity higher and retains moisture of the substrate better (Abate 1995).
Fig.1. Oyster mushroom produced on substrate contained in traditional clay pots.
Fig.1. Oyster mushroom produced on substrate contained in traditional clay pots.
Small-scale (lower investment) mushroom growing for the local market is steadily increasing but growers face several technical problems. Education and technical support are crucially needed to make the activity fruitful, profitable and sustainable.
It is anticipated that investment for large-scale production of mushrooms in Ethiopia and the development of the young mushroom industry can be a feasible and significant economic activity in Ethiopia.
Abate D (1998) Mushroom cultivation: A practical approach, Berhanena Selam Printing Press, Addis Ababa, 218 pp.
Abate D (1995) Cultivation of the oyster mushroom in traditional brick pots. Mycologist 9:179-181.
Abate D (1998) Agaricus campestris on high grazing land. Mycologist 18:121.
Abate D (2010) Mushroom Cultivation- Ethiopia. In: Sharing Innovative Experiences, TWAS/UNDP, Global South-South Development Academy, New York.
Abate D (2006) The Flowing Mushrooms of Ethiopia. Baobab 48:6-10.
Ash JW (1977). Some Ethiopian Macroscopic Fungi. Walia 7:10-15.
Zewdu A, Abate D, Haki GD, Ziegler GR (2014) Antioxidant property of
edible mushrooms collected from Ethiopia. Food Chemistry 157:30-36
Dr. Kenneth Yongabi Anchang
A/Prof/ Director and Founder
Phytobiotechnology Research Foundation Cameroon
Director of Research, Catholic
University of Cameroon, Bamenda, Cameroon
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Africa constitutes at least 25% of the total mushroom biodiversity in the world, but barely contributes up to 0.4% of total mushroom sales and new mushroom products on the global market. The economic importance of mushrooms in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is increasingly gaining attention on the continent, but there is a paucity of information on the commercial production of edible mushrooms and current research into the cultivation of local mushroom species in SSA. Between 1990 and 2013, commercial production of edible mushrooms improved slightly and amounted to approximately 5000 tons per annum but with an economic value of less than 5 million dollars. Less than 500 people were engaged in mushroom production units per year per country in SSA. Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Namibia, South Africa, Malawi, Benin Republic and Ghana are the leading mushroom producing countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Southern, Eastern, Western and Central African countries, per capita consumption of both wild and cultivated mushrooms is very low and, generally, less than 25% of Africans do not have mushrooms as part of their staple diet compared with four decades ago. A cross-sectional survey of indigenous people from across communities in Uganda, Ghana, Cameroon, Ethiopia and Nigeria strongly indicated that, due to modernization, local mushroom diets and recipes have been lost over time. In Cameroon, a traditional soup called "Achu soup" used to be mushroom based but now 80% of Cameroonians serve the dish with meat or smoked fish. Efforts to develop modern based African mushroom meals have yet to be effective. Despite remarkable developments in the last decade in the field of mushroom biotechnology, which have been widely exploited in Europe, America, China and now Latin America, research on the mega-biodiversity of mushrooms in SSA, and the recovery and conservation of indigenous edible mushroom germplasm, has not been extensively undertaken by African research institutions and universities. Continuous growth of the mushroom industries of Latin America, China, Europe and America has, and will continue to, set stiffer challenges on the global market for African mushroom growers. For Africa to fully benefit from the tremendous potential of mushroom entrepreneurship, future research and development directed at enhanced cultivation of local species, improved spawn production, exploitation of local substrates, adequate seed banks, new culinary product development and preservation as well as marketing strategies built on the right institutional support are critical components. Some insights into these measures are outlined in this paper.
Key words: Sub-Saharan Africa, Mushroom Biotechnology, Ganoderma, Pleurotus tuberregium, Termitomyces, Commercial production, Culture collections, Current development.
For the full benefit of mushrooms to be realized in Africa, a thorough understanding of African mushroom resources, and strategies for the cultivation, marketing and development of endogenous species, will need to be aggressively pursued. Africa constitutes at least 25% of the total mushroom biodiversity worldwide but contributes barely 0.4% of total mushroom sales and new mushroom products on the global market. Yet mushrooms are well known in most indigenous African recipes (Mpeketula, 2008) and, at the onset of the rainy seasons, it is customary to find rural people across many African countries (for example, Cameroon, Nigeria, Malawi, Ghana, Benin Republic, Togo, Uganda, Ethiopia, Kenya, Equatorial Guinea and Zimbabwe) going out to search mushrooms from decaying wood and palm trees (Yongabi et al., 2004).
The cultivation of mushrooms for food and medicine is increasingly popular across the world, including Africa. However, the pace of progress in Africa is slow. Never before in contemporary times has the potential of mushrooms been so widely known and advocated. Twenty years ago, Chang (1993) described mushrooms as the gourmet food of the 21st Century. Hitherto, their application has transcended food and medicine into bioremediation of oil spills. Commendable progress on mushroom cultivation techniques has been widely reported (Chang, 1993) but many prospective farmers in SSA who want to grow mushrooms do not have access to information. Some mushroom farmers are aware of cultivation techniques using a range of substrates but, generally, they face a lack of information on the commercial potential of indigenous mushrooms. Mushroom production capacity of SSA is, proportionally, minimal compared to that of Latin America, China and Europe (Martinez-Carrera, 2002; Sanchez et al., 2002). Chioza and Ohga (2014) reported 240 kg per grower in Malawi, with a sale price of about two USD per kg. These values are not significantly different across SSA. The mushroom sector in Africa is characterized by a lack of infrastructure, inadequate technical support, a scarcity of mushroom scientists and poor knowledge of mushroom diversity (Okhuoya et al., 2010). About 95% of all articles published in Africa and elsewhere on the state of mushroom production in Africa point strongly to the under exploitation of mushrooms.
Mushroom cultivation and spawn development in SSA
There is an endemic lack of basic epistemic knowledge about a "one magic bullet substrate" for raising mushrooms with minimal contamination. Additionally, the lack of operating capital, technical assistance, strain and/or spawn availability, and marketing strategies are grossly inadequate to rapidly improve the mushroom sector. So far, African mushroom growers have only succeeded in growing Pleurotus species (Oyster mushrooms) especially Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus sajo-caju and Pleurotus pulmonarius, on corn cobs, rice husks, maize bran and sawdust. Cultivation of these exotic mushrooms is, generally, expensive for an average African farmer. In the coming decades, efforts in Africa would have to be concentrated on developing spawn from local mushroom species as well as utilizing local available tropical weeds and grasses usually left unused or burnt in situ on many farms. At the Phyto-biotechnology Research Foundation Ecological Farm in Bamenda, Cameroon (www.phytobiotechcameroon.org), spawn development and fruiting of P. ostreatus using local grasses such as elephant grass stems (Pennisetum purpureum) and spear grass (Heteropogon contortus) has achieved 70% biological efficiency levels. Laboratory experiments suggest that initial crude fiber from these grasses were 80% utilized when the first flush of P. ostreatus fruit bodies were harvested.
Generally, mushroom growers across Africa use rice bran, rice husks, maize husks and bran (as well as sawdust) in various proprietary proportions, together with calcium oxide for pH stabilization. Although yields have been commendable, thorough scientific analyses of these substrates and biological efficiency studies are lacking. The Phytobiotechnology Research Foundation (PRF) runs a mushroom cultivation unit with intensive research on the domestication and commercial cultivation of local mushroom species (www.phytobiotechcameroon.org). PRF is a Non-Governmental Organization registered with the Cameroon Government CIG Reg. No: NW/GP/29/07/10856 and 0068/E.29/1111/Vol.8/APPB, with a Euroaid No: 958820266. The word Phytobiotechnology was first framed by Dr Kenneth Yongabi Anchang who is currently the director. The Foundation´s work on mushrooms is not only focused on the cultivation of mushrooms for food but also for medicine. Innovative work has steadily progressed on the preparation of widely cultivated P. ostreatus spawn using a number of local substrates prepared from farm wastes in Cameroon, using novel energy saving substrate sterilization methods involving a plant-derived biocide.
Reasonable progress has also been made on the fiber utilization potential of P. ostreatus mycelia. Crude fiber analysis of some agricultural wastes in Cameroon has been carried out. These included corncobs, sawdust, corn stalks and cowpea shells. A study on fiber utilization by oyster mushroom mycelia demonstrated excellent conversion of fiber and lignocellulose. In this study, we noted that sawdust from some trees in Cameroon has the highest amount of fiber (56.33%), and a decrease of 40.72% fiber was noted after mycelia colonization. Crude fiber in sorghum (the lowest amount) was reduced from 3.21% to 1.39% after mycelial colonization. This study showed conclusively that the mycelia of P. ostreatus, has high fiber degradation capacity. We noted in our study that the higher the crude protein content of the substrate, the higher its utilization by the P. ostreatus mycelium. In a separate study, in which no energy was used to pasteurize substrates, salt extracts of Aspilia Africana leaves were introduced into the substrates. These treatments reduced microbial contamination of the substrates by 95%, thus reducing the burden of intensive pasteurization using biomass fuel. More than 85% of the population of SSA encounter energy shortages and largely depend on fuel wood. Our studies have conclusively demonstrated the tripartite advantages of P. ostreatus mycelium as excellent converter of fiber for food, waste utilization and the production of digestible feed for animals, as well as providing clues about low cost substrate sterilization technology.
It was noted that fungal mycelium alone without mushroom fruiting could be used to treat agricultural wastes while concomitantly producing digestible livestock feed. This is very crucial since, in most African countries, the population is predominantly agrarian and produces huge quantities of waste during the farming season. Many of these waste materials, especially rice husks and some tropical grasses, take a long time to break down, and when used in livestock feed formulae unconverted, are rejected by the animals. These laboratory studies are very necessary tools to establish suitable local conditions for sustained mushroom cultivation and applications in SSA.
Plate 1: A mushroom grower in Bamenda, Cameroon, growing Pleurotus ostreatus on a mix of rice husk, maize bran and sawdust using plastic bags.
Plate 2: Fresh Pleurotus ostreatus fruit bodies
In Namibia, Malawi and Zimbabwe, the Zero Emission Research Initiative (ZERI, www.zeri.org) program has demonstrated success with the cultivation of P. ostreatus on a wide range of substrates including water hyacinth (www.unam.na/centres/zeri/malawi.htm).
The need to explore and document standard mushroom cultivation protocols on local African substrates is critical to sustaining mushroom production in SSA. The ZERI Program in the last decade embarked on extensive capacity building across Africa, particularly in the University of Namibia where one of the ZERI mushroom research projects is housed. Other related progress has been made in Ethiopia, Malawi, Uganda, Nigeria and many other countries across Africa. In Nigeria, for instance, Dr Kenneth Yongabi Anchang and Prof Michael Agho of blessed memory spearheaded the ZERI mushroom research effort from 2000 to 2005 supported by the ZERI Foundation and Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria. The findings of Yongabi and Agho suggested that less than 15% of Africans grow mushrooms. The major challenge remaining unresolved is the poor knowledge of mushroom spawn production technology which requires financial commitments and capital requirements. We noted that this has excluded so many small-scale farmers. We also noted the need to strengthen capacity for dealing with microbial contamination of substrates, and control strategies for pest infestation on mushroom farms which require the use of synthetic agrochemicals.
Costs remain generally high for many local farmers. Energy is required for pasteurization with more than 70% of the farmers using biomass fuels, thus posing a serious challenge. Research findings from the PRF and the Catholic University of Cameroon, which has built simple and indigenous biotechnologies hinged on local resources for more sustained mushroom production in Africa, provide solutions to the problems highlighted by Yongabi and Agho in 2005 in Nigeria.
Current status of spawn development from African indigenous mushroom species
The major barrier to mushroom cultivation and production in Africa is the dependence on imported exotic mushroom spawn. This has necessitated the adoption of greenhouses and special conditions foreign to the farmers and adding to their costs. The need to develop spawn from indigenous local mushroom species is a critical step in boosting mushroom production in Africa. So far, this has not been achieved. At the moment, spawn and spawn banks have been developed from less than 5% of African indigenous mushrooms strains. This is another critical component for the survival of the mushroom industry in Africa. For instance, Agaricus species grow wild on decaying palms in Africa but no spawn banks of these species exist. Yet, in Latin America, Europe and Asia, Agaricus species are widely cultivated on a huge industrial scale. With rapid urbanization, climate change, and ecological degradation that are already palpable in SSA, the palm tree population is rapidly dwindling by approximately 5% per annum. The potential impact of this is the loss of Agaricus strains. Similarly, Pleurotus tuberregium is another tremendous mushroom resource predominant in West and Central Africa that has remained largely under-utilized.
Local efforts towards the domestication of local mushroom species. Pleurotus tuber-regium mycelia/spawn developed from sporophore tissue at the PRF Research Centre, Cameroon (Pic: Kenneth Yongabi with Pleurotus tuberregium fruit, 2012).
Classification/taxonomy of indigenous African mushroom species requires elaborate studies and expertise and, at present, there are only a few mushroom mycologists in SSA able to take up this challenge. Our field studies across the Guinean savanna area of Nigeria (Bauchi, Gombe and Jigawa States), northern Cameroon, as well as the grassland fields of the northwest region of Cameroon, suggest that there is some indigenous knowledge base that might be useful in the classification of some local mushroom species. This indigenous knowledge could be used by African mushroom mycologists for taxonomic purposes. Such knowledge, if carefully exploited, could be incorporated into modern day fungal taxonomy for the 21st century, and could be a useful guide to molecular taxonomic tools. This is an interesting area and anticipates further research work.
In addition to investigating the proximate, nutritional and medicinal profiles of extracts of local mushrooms, the PRF Centre is also engaged in co-opting indigenous knowledge resources to identify and classify local mushroom species in Cameroon. In this context, Pleurotus tuber-regium, an edible mushroom containing 29.2% protein collected in the southwest region of Cameroon, and Termitomyces tetani, another edible mushroom containing 21% protein from Baligham in the Santa sub-division of Cameroon, have been analyzed. A rich folklore exists among the local people of Baligham in the North West (NW) Region of Cameroon, who can identify Termitomyces species from the termite´s mound. Local names in the dialects of the people of Tikari in NW Cameroon are used to describe mushrooms that exist symbiotically with insects. Our studies at the PRF Centre further demonstrated that acetone and methanolic extracts of some collected mushroom samples such as Auricularia auricular and T. titanicus inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, a common clinical isolate that is rapidly becoming resistant to antibiotics. Although aqueous extracts showed no activity, further studies are planned with other mushrooms. Data from phytochemical studies are shown in Tables 1 and 2.
Table 1. Phytochemical content of wild mushrooms from NW Cameroon
Table 2. Crude protein analysis and preliminary bioassay
| Edible mushroom type
|| Not determined
||+ (c-glycosides present)
- (c-glycosides absent)
Some of these preliminary data have been noted in a number of reports across Africa but more in-depth studies are required to develop these findings, and a need for African mycologists to continuously document and conserve the ethnomycology of Africa. In this context, a rare Ganoderma species has been identified growing in the wild in the Boyo Division of the North West Province of Cameroon.
A rare species of Ganoderma (Alem in Kom dialect) growing on local decaying trees in grassland fields of the northwest region of Cameroon (Pic. Kenneth Yongabi, 2012)
Plate 2: Ganoderma sp. identified as predominant in most areas of Northern Nigeria, Cameroon and many parts of the world
Comments on the application of tropical mushroom biotechnology in healthcare
Natural products from tropical mushrooms with bioactive properties are increasingly being prospected across the African mycosphere, and effort that is imperative for improved healthcare of Africans (Yongabi et al., 2004). There is a rich source of traditional knowledge on the use of mushrooms to treat diseases like cancer, diabetes and HIV/AIDS. Increased awareness of its importance encouraged Professor Omon Isikhuemhen and other African mycologists to organize international conferences on the edible and medicinal mushrooms of Africa annually during the past five years with a view to developing pharmaceuticals and nutriceuticals with therapeutic value from African mushrooms. Some of these efforts are currently being translated into healthcare products. For example, in Ghana, Dr. Adoteh Gideon of Accra Polytechnic, in collaboration with Aloha Medicinals, USA, has developed Immune Assist 24/7 from tropical G. lucidum and other mushroom species for enhancing the immunity of HIV/AIDS patients.
Immune Assist 24/7 developed by Gideon Adoteh, Accra Polytechnic
A similar initiative in Cameroon spearheaded by Kenneth Yongabi at the PRF Research Centre in Cameroon, has observed that therapeutic foods derived from G. lucidum and Agaricus species in a proprietary blend called Kaybiotics improves the immunity of HIV/AIDs patients in Cameroon. The PRF Centre has shown that, in Cameroon, many local mushroom species belonging to more than 23 genera exist. Dominant among these are P. tuber-regium, T. titanicus, T. robusta, Agaricus campestris, Flammulina spp, as well as many different Ganoderma species.
Plate shows a catalogue of mushroom surveys in Northern Nigeria, showing a rich biodiversity among many unidentified local species (Pic: Kenneth Yongabi, 2005)
Plate 4: Phellinus baumii, a wild mushroom species from Cameroon with potential antimicrobial activity
Novel potential of tropical mushrooms
During the last decade, research across Africa has demonstrated that mushrooms have a high potential in bioremediation. Mushroom spent substrate is, potentially, useful for the bioremediation of oil contaminated soil and detoxification of noxious elements in soil and water ecosystems. There is a need to strengthen research efforts in this direction. Mushrooms are formidable biocatalysts in the degradation of oil contaminated habitats, regenerating biotic microflora as well as bringing about abiotic balance. African mushroom biotechnologists and mycologists need to progress this further for the sustainable development for the continent. Discussions on mushroom science and development have been predominantly limited to academic circles but stakeholders in Africa must strive to implement research findings for the visible benefit of Africans.
The use of mushrooms to treat wastewater in Africa was first reported by the author (Yongabi, 2004) who demonstrated that P. tuber-regium sclerotia serve as mycocoagulants, potentially acting as a polyelectrolyte (Yongabi et al, 2010). Mushroom production can boost tourism; mycotourism still remains to be explored on the continent. Mushroom mycelia have the potential to treat diabetic wounds (Yongabi et al, 2010), which needs to be further explored.Yongabi in 2010 also showed that mushrooms have a strong potential application in tropical infectiology and healthcare. In the area of animal husbandry, the use of mushrooms as an animal feed supplement has strong potential that is being examined in Ghana and Cameroon.
Horizons of new mushroom biotechnology for SSA
There are increasing new opportunities opening up in the production and commercialization of mushrooms due to globalization. This is also creating new opportunities and challenges for the sector in Sub-Saharan Africa. To increase mushroom production rapidly, possibly to measure up comparatively with the fast-track production of western countries, China and Latin America, a holistic integrated approach will need to be considered. This includes amongst other things, a focus on increased production through the use of modern biotechnology, development of indigenous mushroom species, new spawn production strategies both for new and existing mushroom species, institutional support from African governments, improvements in preservation technology, new product development, and aggressive marketing strategies.
|Edible mushroom type
| Termitomyces tetanicus
|| Inhibition zone greater than 6 mm diameter
| Auricularia auricular
|| Inhibition zone greater than 6 mm diameter
Abubakar M, Ngele MB, Kalla DJU, Yongabi AK, Dauda AB (2003) Proximate
analysis of crop residues biologically treated or ensiled. Proceedings of the 28 Annual Conference of the Nigerian Society for Animal Production. 28:155-157.
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Chang ST (1999) Global impact of edible and medicinal mushrooms on human welfare in the 21st century: Non-green revolution. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 1:1-7
Chioza A, Ohga S (2014) Cultivated mushrooms in Malawi: A look at the present situation. Advances in Microbiology. 4(1)6-11
Dongs IS, Yongabi KA, Agho MO, Agbo EB, Wufem MB, Anong DN (2003) Breakdown of agricultural residues using mycelia of Pleurotus ostreatus. Journal of the League of Researchers of Nigeria (JOLORN). 4(2):47-54
Gwanama C, Mwale VM, Nsibanda A (2011) Basic procedures for small scale production of oyster mushrooms, University of Namibia.
Martinez-Carrera D (1989) Past and future of edible mushroom cultivation in tropical America. Mushroom Science. 14:459-466
Martinez-Carrera D (2002) Current development of mushroom biotechnology in Latin America. Micologia Aplicada International. 14 (2):61- 71. Available at http//micaplint.fws1.com
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Okhuoya JA, Akpaja EO, Osemwegie OO, Oghenekaro AO, Ihayaere CA (2010) Nigerian mushrooms: underutilized non-wood forest resources, Environmental Management. 14(1):43-54
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Yongabi KA (2004) Studies on the use of medicinal plants and macrofungi (Lower Plants) in water and wastewater purification. Proceedings of an International E-conference organized by the International Organization for Biotechnology and Bioengineering (IOBB), Sweden, June 14-25.Web Pages online: www.biotech.kth.se/iobb/news/Kenneth/photos.html, www.biotech.kth.se/iobb/news/kenneth04.doc, Republished in Tree for Life Journal, March 10, 2006, http://mail.treesforlife.org:8083/moringa/staticpages/kenneth04.pdf
Yongabi KA (2007) Ethnomycological Survey of wild mushrooms in the Guinea Savanna Belt of Nigeria, Poster Presentation at the First World Conference on the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Wild Fungi Organized by the Regional Government of Andalucía, 10-16 December, 296-297.
Yongabi KA (2007) Ethnomycology of grassland fields and tropical rainforest of Cameroon, Poster Presentation at the First World Conference on Conservation and Sustainable Use of Wild Fungi, organized by the Regional Government of Andalucia, Spain, 10-16 December,
Yongabi KA (2007) Potential use of mushrooms and spent substrate in decontamination of oil contaminated soil. (Uso Potentcial de Hongos en descontamination de substrates). Proceedings of the First World Conference on the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Wild Fungi, organized by the Regional Government of Andalucia, Cordoba, Spain, 10-16 December,
Yongabi KA, Agho MO, Abdullahi AL, Abayeh OJ (2005) An integrated bio-systems for agricultural wastes management in Bauchi-Nigeria through mushroom cultivation. Journal of League of Researchers in Nigeria (JOLORN) 5(2):76- 81.
Yongabi KA, Ijah UJJ, Ejilah RI (2006) Potentials of Pleurotus ostreatus and urea as biocatalysts in the biodegradation of lubricating oil contaminated soil. Proceedings of an Internet seminar organized by the working group on Bioremediation. web page; http//www.iobbnet.org/drupal/forum 123. Accessed June 30, 2014
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