Bulletin Number 5. July 31st, 2011
Dr. Peter C. RomaineDr. Peter C. Romaine J.B. Swayne Chair and Professor Department of Plant Pathology The Pennsylvania State University University Park, PA 16802 USA

Birth of the recombinant DNA era.

In the early 1970's, scientists first succeeded at splicing viral and bacterial DNAs in the test tube, heralding the birth of the recombinant DNA era, commonly referred to as genetic engineering, gene splicing, and transgenics. This new biotechnology found immediate application in the production of pharmaceuticals, where synthesis of protein-based drugs by genetically modified (GM) microbes provided a quantum leap in efficiency over the laborious extraction of often miniscule amounts from animal tissues..

It was during the 1980's when the potential of the burgeoning discipline of genetic engineering was first brought to bear on the improvement of agricultural productivity. The discovery of techniques to transfer genes to the major agronomic crops from unrelated species provided breeders with new vistas for increasing the efficiency of food crop production. Today, GM crop plants have been developed, and in some examples commercialized, for increased resistance to insects, pathogens, and herbicides, improved tolerance to drought and cold, and enhanced nutritional qualities.

Enter the common cultivated mushroom.

For almost as long as scientists have been introducing genes into crop plants using transgenic breeding, others have attempted with limited success at developing a gene transfer method for the common cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. In 2000, a post-doctoral fellow working in my laboratory, Xi Chen, devised an easy and effective Agrobacterium-mediated "fruiting body" gene transfer method holding the promise of a powerful tool for the genetic improvement of A. bisporus (Chen et al. 2000). Xi discovered that the lamellar tissue in the fruiting body was highly receptive to DNA transfer mediated by the bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a common soil inhabitant with a worldwide distribution. It causes crown gall disease on hundreds of woody and herbaceous plant species, but most commonly pome and stone fruits, brambles, and grapes. In its normal life cycle, the bacterium transfers a tiny piece of its plasmid DNA into the plant DNA, resulting in the formation of galls. These galls serve as specialized factories for the mass production of the bacterium. Over the years, scientists developed disarmed strains that were incapable of inducing galls, but retained the ability to transfer DNA. Thus, a natural biological process was harnessed to create a bacterial delivery system for moving genes into plants, as well as fungi (De Groot et al. 1998).

In the experiments carried out by Xi Chen, a small ring of DNA carrying a gene for resistance to the antibiotic, hygromycin B, was transferred to a disarmed strain of Agrobacterium. The antibiotic resistance gene is referred to as a selectable marker, because mushroom cells receiving this gene from the bacterium become marked by the resistance trait and can be selected based on the ability to grow on an otherwise lethal hygromycin B-amended medium. The end result was a mushroom strain having the newly acquired trait of hygromycin B resistance. Such a strain had absolutely no commercial value, but rather the resistance trait was simply a research tool that allowed us to easily determine if the bacterium had transferred the gene to A. bisporus, and exactly how efficiently it did so under different experimental conditions.

Our "fruiting body" gene transfer method entailed excising lamellar tissue from a fruiting body approaching maturity, but with the veil intact, so as to ensure some degree of sterility. The tissue was then sectioned into small pieces and vacuum-infiltrated with a suspension of Agrobacterium carrying the hygromycin B resistance gene. The lamellar explants and bacterium were co-cultivated on a defined growth medium for 3 to 4 days, during which time the bacterium transferred the antibiotic resistance gene to the mushroom genome. Because not all lamellar cells receive a copy of the resistance gene, those that have can be distinguished from those that have not by the ability to proliferate on the antibiotic-amended medium. After 7 days of incubation, mycelium of A. bisporus appeared growing at the edges of some of the lamellar explants, and after 21 days upwards of 95% of the tissue pieces had regenerated into discernible cultures. At this point, the GM cultures could be transferred to a standard nutrient medium and used to prepare grain spawn in the conventional manner for the production of fruiting bodies.

The results of cropping trials carried out during the early 2000's at the Penn State Mushroom Research Center demonstrated that hygromycin B-resistant GM lines of A. bisporus mirrored their parental commercial hybrid off-white strain in colonizing the growth substrate. Moreover, GM lines produced fruiting bodies having a normal morphology and some yielded on a par with the parental commercial strain. Stable inheritance of the antibiotic resistance gene in the fruiting bodies was easily confirmed by the re-growth of pileus and stipe tissue explants on a hygromycin B-amended medium. The results of these trials were critical, albeit somewhat predicted, because they established for the first time that a foreign gene could be introduced into A. bisporus without having a detrimental effect on its vegetative and reproductive characteristics.

3. Following the path of lesser resistance

Agaricus bisporus, is one of the most intensively cultivated and extensively researched edible mushroom species in the world (Chang 2005). It is popularly known as the white button and brown portabella and crimini. Despite more than one-half century of commercial cultivation and scientific investigation, advances in the genetic enhancement of this crop species has been impeded by its recalcitrant genetics (Summerbell et al. 1989; Van Griensven 1991). Virtually all white strains of A. bisporus commercially cultivated throughout the U.S., Canada, Mexico, and Eastern and Western Europe today represent largely clonal derivatives of the Horst 'U1' and 'U3' hybrid off-white/white strains that were introduced to the industry in the 1980's. These two strains were the products of an ambitious breeding effort led by Dr. Gerda Fritche, Horst Mushroom Experimental Station, The Netherlands (Fritche 1983).

Dr. Fritche intercrossed smooth-white and off-white strains to develop hybrids that combined the favorable high-yield and mechanical harvesting characteristics of the off-white strain with the smooth round dense cap and bruising resistance of the white strain. The 'U1' and 'U3' strains had completely dominated the market for the white button variety within 10 years of their release, because of their compellingly superior agronomic traits. Ironically, the overwhelming success of these strains created a near global mushroom monoculture that remains precarious from the standpoint of pathogen and pest susceptibility, while limiting the range of cultural characteristics available to the grower. A strong movement afoot, however, now seeks to broaden the genetic diversity of commercial strains by utilizing a largely untapped wild germ plasm collection procured by Dr. Richard Kerrigan, Sylvan Inc., under the Agaricus Recovery Program (ARP) (Kerrigan 2004). A recent success story is the strong acceptance by the U.S. mushroom industry of the high-yielding Amycel 'Heirloom' portabella strain that was bred by a hybridization approach using the ARP wild germ plasm (Robles and Lodder 2010).

The advent of a facile genetic transformation method for A. bisporus offered an alternative approach to traditional breeding for broadening the genetic base of commercial mushroom strains. The prospect of achieving for the mushroom what had been accomplished for crop plants, particularly resistance to fly pests and viral pathogens, was now technically feasible. However, my fervor for transgenically breeding the mushroom was quenched by the cool disinterest of the commercial mushroom breeders. It quickly became apparent that if the transgenic methodology was to be used for a practical application, then our research would have to take on a new direction.

In 2005, we refocused our research effort on the use of A. bisporus as a factory for the manufacture of commercially valuable proteins, such as biopharmaceuticals (protein-based drugs) and industrial enzymes. A post-doctoral fellow in my laboratory at the time, Carl Schlagnhaufer, succeeded in expressing the first biopharmaceutical in the mushroom, a commercial protein with a market value of US$600 million. Growing GM mushrooms as a factory for protein-based drugs circumvented the consumer acceptance issues surrounding GM food. Further, inherent characteristics of A. bisporus and its cultivation scheme were amenable to the commercial-scale manufacture of biopharmaceuticals. For example, the highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer technique facilitated the large-scale generation of GM cultures. Using a mature technology from the food industry, a starter culture could be rapidly expanded by vegetative propagation for the production of a large quantity of GM fruiting body biomass. A typical 32-day cropping cycle yielded 30 kg of biomass/m2 of growing area at a cost of less than US$2.00/kg (USDA 2010). Finally, mushroom cultivation was a readily scalable process that could be carried out under containment in an HVAC-controlled, HEPA-filtered, enclosed facility.

Accelerated manufacture of biopharmaceuticals

In 2006, I co-founded Agarigen Inc., a Penn State spin-out company dedicated to harnessing A. bisporus as a workhorse for the mass-manufacture of commercialized proteins. In the following year, the company was awarded a multi-year research contract from the Department of Defense -- Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) under the Accelerated Manufacture of Pharmaceuticals (AMP) program. The mushroom was one of five organisms-- tobacco, Neurospora crassa, Pseudomonas bacterium, and shrimp-- selected for the development of a high-capacity high-speed, low-cost manufacturing system for protein-based drugs. A team of 12 Agarigen scientists quickly found itself immersed in a fast-paced, intensive, and expansive research effort, exploring and defining molecular tactics for expressing recombinant genes in the high-biomass fruiting body of A. bisporus. Using a high-throughput scheme, thousands of GM lines were generated and screened for the production of recombinant proteins. More than 40 genes encoding a broad diversity of prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins with multimeric structure, disulfide bonding, and glycosylation were successfully expressed in the mushroom. Several mushroom-made recombinant proteins were extracted, purified, and shown to be fully functional when compared to their native counterparts. Intrexon Corporation, which acquired Agarigen in early 2011 (Intrexon 2011), is now gearing up for the expanded production of a protein for one its first clients, with several other recombinant proteins in development.

The need for speed - elucidating the contribution of the spawn and CI in the organogenesis of the fruiting body

Commercial cultivation of A. bisporus is carried out using a bi-layered substrate consisting of a lower layer of compost and upper layer of neutralized peat ("casing"). The compost is seeded with either sterilized rye or millet grain colonized by A. bisporus ("spawn"). After two weeks, when the substrate has become completely colonized by A. bisporus, the casing is overlaid on the compost bed. A common practice in the North American mushroom industry is to seed the casing with a second inoculant consisting of a nutrient-fortified particulate matrix colonized by A. bisporus ("CI"). This practice results in the rapid and uniform development of the fruiting bodies. Mycelia colonizing the casing and compost anastomose at the interface of the two layers, creating a singular fungal network throughout the cultivation medium. Fruiting bodies first appear at about 17 days after application of the casing layer, and continue to develop at weekly intervals during a three-week harvest period.

Under the DARPA AMP program, we were tasked with devising a 12-week manufacturing cycle, starting with the input of the gene encoding a protein and ending with the output of the protein in purified form. One potential timesaving solution was to use a dual-inoculant strategy in which the casing layer was inoculated with a GM CI and overlaid on compost that had been pre-colonized by a commercial non-GM spawn. In effect, this would reduce the manufacturing timeline by the two-week compost colonization period. We conducted these studies using GM lines expressing a bacterial beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter protein. Fruiting body tissues expressing GUS developed a blue-green color when incubated for several hours in a colorless substrate of the enzyme (Fig. 1). Comparing the level of GUS enzyme activity in fruiting bodies grown from both a GM GUS spawn and CI with those grown from a non-GM spawn and GM GUS CI would provide a measure of the efficacy of the dual-inoculant strategy for reducing the manufacturing timeline. Moreover, the results of these studies would shed light on the relative contribution of the spawn-derived mycelium and CI-derived mycelium in the formation of the fruiting body. Mushroom growers were of the opinion that the CI was the "brain center" controlling mushroom development, although exactly to what extent was strictly conjecture.

Fig. 1 Non-genetically modified (Non-GM) fruiting body (left) and genetically
modified beta-glucuronidase-expressing (GM GUS) fruiting body (right).

The findings of a three-year investigation proved the dual-inoculant strategy to be a viable option for shortening the timeline for mushroom-based manufacture of recombinant proteins. More importantly, emanating from these studies were two surprising discoveries. First, the genotype of the fruiting body was determined completely by the genotype of the A. bisporus strain used as the CI in the upper casing layer. And second, GUS protein that was synthesized in GM mycelium colonizing the lower compost layer was transported up and into a non-GM fruiting body developing from a non-GM mycelium in the casing layer. To our knowledge, long-distance translocation of protein in filamentous fungi had not been described.

Figure 2 summarizes the genotype and phenotype of fruiting bodies grown from different combinations of non-GM and GM GUS inoculants for the cultivation substrates. Fruiting bodies developing from both non-GM spawn and CI tested negative by PCR analysis for the GUS gene and negative for GUS enzyme activity. Fruiting bodies produced with both GM GUS spawn and CI tested positive for both the GUS gene and enzyme activity. Unexpectedly, fruiting bodies grown from a GM GUS spawn and non-GM CI expressed high-level GUS enzyme activity, but did not contain the GUS gene. These fruiting bodies also lacked the GUS transcript, as determined by RT-PCR analysis, indicating it was the GUS protein that was translocated from the mycelium colonizing the compost to the developing fruiting body. We interpreted our findings to suggest that the recruitment of functional protein from the vegetative mycelial network in the compost offers A. bisporus a more favorable conservation of metabolic resources and increased rate of development relative to a total dependence on the de novo synthesis of protein within the fruiting body.

Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus: Fruit tree culture by another name?

The unexpected discovery that the genotype of A. bisporus colonizing the upper casing layer governed the genotype of the fruiting body, independent of the genotype colonizing the lower compost layer, creates an opportunity to explore the propagation scheme used in fruit tree culture for the agronomic improvement of the mushroom. A common practice is to graft the rootstock of one cultivar to the scion of another to bring together the desirable features of the two cultivars in one tree (Fig. 3). Similarly, a "companion-inoculant" strategy could be investigated using the mushroom in which the two substrate layers are inoculated with different, but complementary, strains of A. bisporus. For example, the CI strain could be selected for imparting desirable reproductive traits, such as color, size, and quality of the fruiting body, whereas the spawn strain could be chosen for its superior vegetative traits, such as rate of growth, thermal tolerance, green mold resistance, and efficient utilization of the substrate. The companion-inoculant method would permit the combined use of two strains to achieve a set of vegetative and reproductive traits that otherwise might be difficult to breed in a single strain. The two genetically disparate strains with complementary traits will need to anastomose efficiently to form a fully functional single mycelial network in the cultivation substrate. Nonetheless, this strategy could well be a fruitful line of investigation that is ripe for development!

Fig. 3 Comparison of fruit tree culture and mushroom culture with respect to a reliance on the
formation of an organic union between two vegetatively compatible genotypes.


Chang, S.T. 2005. Witnessing the development of the mushroom industry in China. Acta Edulis Fungi 12:(supplement) 3-19.

Chen, X., M. Stone, C. Schlagnhaufer, and C. P. Romaine. 2000. A fruiting body tissue method for efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Agaricus bisporus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:4510-4513.

De Groot, M. J., P. Bundock, P. J. Hooykaas and A. G. Beijersbergen. 1998. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of filamentous fungi. Nat. Biotechnol. 16:839-842.

Fritche, G. 1983. Breeding Agaricus bisporus at the Mushroom Experimental Station, Horst. Mushroom J. 122:49-53.

Intrexon 2011. Intrexon Launches AgBio Division and Acquires Agarigen, Inc. February 1, 2011.

Kerrigan, R. W. 2004. Trait diversity in wild Agaricus bisporus. Pp. 31-38. In: Romaine, C. P., C. B. Keil, D. L. Rinker, and D. J. Royse (eds.). Science and Cultivation of Edible and Medical Fungi. Mushroom Science Vol. 16. International Society for Mushroom Science. The Pennsylvania State University. University Park, Pennsylvania. 738 pp.

Robles, C., and S. Lodder. 2010. Mushroom breeding: A fresh perspective. Mushroom News 58(2):12-19.

Summerbell, R. C., A. J. Castle, P. A. Horgen, and J. B. Anderson. 1989. Inheritance of restriction length polymorphisms in Agaricus brunnescens. Genetics 123:293-300.

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). 2010. Mushrooms. National Agricultural Statistics Service. Agricultural Statistics Board, Washington, DC.

Van Griensven, L. J. L. D. 1991. Genetics and Breeding of Agaricus. Mushroom Experimental Station. Horst, The Netherlands. Backhuys Publishers, The Netherlands. 171 pp.



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Dr. Leo J.L.D. Van GriensvenDr. Leo J.L.D. Van Griensven Department of Bioscience, Plant Research International, WageningenUniversity and Research Centre, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, 6700AA Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Monocytes, dendritic cells (DC's) and macrophages play important roles in many host reactions. They mediate immune and inflammation processes via the production and release of a variety of soluble mediators, like radicals as superoxide anions, cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-a (TNFa), and enzymes such as cyclooxygenase-2. These biologically active agents were shown to modulate cell differentiation and proliferation.

In an immature state monocytes are found in the blood, equipped with chemokine and adhesion receptors that mediate their migration from blood to tissues during infection. When migrated to tissues, monocytes may differentiate into DC's and finally become macrophages. DC's can move from tissues into T-cell and B-cell zones of lymphoid organs. Of particular interest is the role of DC's in mucosal immunity such as in the lungs and in the intestine and their associated lymphoid tissues. DC's can mount appropriate immune responses to pathogenic micro-organisms leading to protection of affected tissues from damage. Given the limited life span of dendritic cells, it is important that a continuous flow of monocytes takes place into the tissues that are to be protected.

Our research efforts focus on the inflammatory response; and in vitro monocyte differentiation seems to be a good starting point in elucidating the possible preventive and/or curative role of medicinal mushroom extracts. The THP-1 human myeloid leukaemia cell line (Tsuchiya et al., 1980) is of monocytic nature and considered as a good model for phagocyte biology. In our present study we looked for various fungal extracts and components that cause morphological differentiation of the human monocyte cell line Thp-1 into wall adhering dendritic cells, i.e. into macrophages. Our data showed that polysaccharide extracts of the basidiomycete mushrooms A. bisporus, A. blazei (syn. A. brasiliensis) and L. edodes induced rapid differentiation of the human monocytic cell line THP-1 into macrophages in vitro, i.e. into wall adhering cells that do absorb opsonized latex particles. The in vivo differentiation of monocytes into macrophages before or after migration to the intestinal system plays a protective role, therapeutically and/or preventively, against intestinally-active pathogens. Acute infections by Salmonella sp., or by various strains of E. coli sp. are presently obvious examples. Specific mushroom extracts could possibly be used as adjuvants in oral vaccination directed to strengthen mucosal immunity. Prevention of malaria, tuberculosis, HIV and of a multitude of parasitic infections is the ultimate goal of oral vaccination.


Mosser, D.M., Edwards, J.P. 2008. Exploring the full spectrum of macrophage activation. Nature Rev. Immunol. 8(12), 958-69.

Tsuchiya, S., Yamabe, M., Yamaguchi, Y., Kobayashi, Y., Konno, T., Tada, K. 1980. Establishment and characterization of a human acute monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1). Int.J.Cancer 26, 171-176.

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Dr. José E S&acutenchezDr. José E Sánchez ECOSUR, Apdo. Postal 36 Tapachula, Chiapas 30700 México

Time passes very quickly. Three years are already gone since the last 6TH ICMBMP was organized by Dr. Jan Lelley in Germany. We still have good memories of the excellent academic program of the conference, the boat cruise on the Rhine River, and of course, the beautiful old narrow streets of Bonn... It seems like it happened just yesterday...

Our next conference, the 7CMBMP, will be held in a few months from now, and we see again how time passes very quickly. As October 4th 2011 approaches, like Dr. Jean Michel Savoie, we already have the feeling that it will start tomorrow. We know that Dr. Savoie and his research group will organize an excellent conference: we have seen the list of plenary lectures on the conference website and they look great. The whole program is now being put together and we are sure it will be of the highest level concerning mushroom science, R&D, teaching and extension. For sure, at the end of each conference day, we will have time to visit and enjoy the salty sea breezes around the beautiful Ville dArcachon; certainly we will have the opportunity to taste good wine there!

A few days before our conference in Arcachon, the 6th International Medicinal Mushroom Conference (IMMC6) will be held in Zagreb, Croatia. Since both ICMBMP7 and IMMC6 are mushroom related and chronologically and geographically close, there are some concerns about overlapping; however we believe that both conferences have attracted good support from participants and that both will be successful. Something similar happened in 2008, when the 6th ICMBMP and the 17th ISMS Conferences were organized in the same year, although in widely different geographical locations.

During our forthcoming conference in Arcachon the Society's Council will discuss future events and issues related to the society conference; we will have time to meet and discuss with society members and get their views on future events. We need to start talking about the 8CMBMP... where will it be held? Who will organize it? Who will be the Chairman? These are questions to be answered by Society Members, so, we invite all research Groups willing to organize the 8th conference, to submit proposals to the Society Council. There will be time to discuss the subject during the meeting but proposals are being sought and encouraged now. Please send them to us at your earliest convenience.

Another subject that concerns our Society is the renewal of the Society Council. This topic will be discussed during our WSMBMP-meeting and members are already invited to propose -or self propose- and then vote for the renewal of our Council. By doing so we participate in defining the future of our Society.

Mean while, enjoy the summer holidays and see you in Arcachon!!

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Dr. Jean Michel Savoie Dr. Jean Michel Savoie INRA, Mycology and Food Safety,Bordeaux, France

The purpose of ICMBMP7 is to bring together scientists with an interest in mushrooms from the standpoint of any subdivision of biology and people having practical economic concerns with mushrooms and mushroom products. The conference has as its goal the exchange of information about new findings in the aspects of mushroom biology and mushroom products including (i) Genomics, genetics, molecular biology and breeding (ii) Evolution, biodiversity and systematics (iii) Biochemistry, Physiology, Nutritional and medicinal aspects, Innovative products from mushrooms, (iv) Cultivation technology and bioconversions.

We are proud to announce the invited speakers for the ICMBMP7 who will introduce the different sessions:
Dr Richard W Kerrigan (Sylvan Inc, USA): The Agaricus genome project and its interest for progress in mushroom biology and mushroom products.
Dr Anton Sonnenberg (WUR, The Netherlands): The typical life cycle of Agaricus bisporus: Opportunities for breeders and challenges for strain protection.
Prof. Jianping Xu (MacMaster University, Canada): Diversity and population biology of wild mushrooms.
Prof. Kevin Hyde (Mae Fah Luang University, Thailand): Inventory of local edible mushrooms and their development as cultivatable species.
Prof. Gary Foster (University of Bristol, UK): Biobased antibiotics from basidios : Case study of the identification and manipulation of the pleuromutilin gene cluster from Clitopilus passeckerianus
Prof. Robert Beelman (Pennsylvania State University, USA): Practical Methods to Enrich Mushrooms with the Important Bioactive Compounds: Selenium, Ergothioneine and Vitamin D2.
Prof Tadanori Aimi (Tottori University, Japan): Expression of Genes for the Glucoamylases (Glycoside Hydrolase Family 15, GH15) in edible mushrooms.
Prof. Ursula Kues (University of Gottingen, Germany): Development of fruiting-bodies in mushrooms.
Dr Antonios Philippoussis (NAGREF, Greece): Conversion of bio-industrial wastes and agricultural residues into high value products by mushroom cultivation.
Prof Petr Baldrian (ASCR, Czech Republic): Production of lignocellulolytic enzymes by mushrooms.

Mushroom scientists from 37 countries replied to the call for abstracts which was open from October 2010 to May 2011. In addition to the ten invited lectures, 82 short oral communications and 65 poster presentations have been selected by the scientific committee of the conference. Half of the contributions are coming from a group of seven countries representing three continents: India, China, Japan; Brazil, Mexico; France, The Netherlands.
The topics covered by the communications and the posters are: Genomics and breeding, diversity and taxonomy, Physiology and development; Pests and diseases; Mycorrhizal mushrooms; New mushrooms and cultivation technologies; Biodegradations and enzyme productions; Waste conversion, substrates and casing; Mycosourced molecules and nutritional quality; Medicinal properties; Economics and overview of mushroom production.
Each oral and poster presenter is invited to submit a full paper (research article) for publication in the conference proceeding. Open access to the proceeding will be available in (Quae Editions) to ensure good dissemination of the scientific progress reported during the conference.

In addition to the invited lectures, communications and poster sessions, three panel discussions / small seminars are scheduled. The final topics will be selected according to the interests of the participants. Potential topics include: Regulations for the protection of new mushroom varieties; Preservation of edible and medicinal mushroom resources: towards international cooperation; Standardization and regulation of mushroom products quality; Promotion of mushroom production and waste bioconversion for income generation in under-developed rural areas; New developments in integrated pest management for mushroom culture; Production of edible mushrooms in forests: trends in the development of mycosilviculture ...

To attend the conference, it is necessary to register first online on the site of the conference ( containing practical information.
The conference will commence from 15:00 on Tuesday, 4th October with registration at the Convention Centre of Arcachon. In the evening, a welcome cocktail will be offered by Amycel-Spawnmate Company, one of the partners of ICMBMP7. This will be a great opportunity to meet with colleagues and friends in a relaxed atmosphere.

The parallel sessions, poster sessions and small seminars are scheduled to run from Wednesday 5th at 08:30 hrs to Friday 7th October at 18:00 hrs. The Conference Banquet on Friday night will close these three days of intensive work. The development of the World Society for Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products will be discussed during a meeting open to all the delegates.

Surrounded by golden sands, the pleasant resort city of Arcachon lies on the mouth of the Bassin d'Arcachon - a rare inlet on the long, straight, west coast of France. It offers many possibilities of promenades and the delegates are encouraged to discover the landscapes and the typical productions of the Aquitaine region. Arcachon is just sixty kilometres from the great wine capital of Bordeaux, a classical French city on the list of UNESCO's World Heritage sites since 2007. Information will be delivered by the tourism office to the delegates and tours may be organized for accompanying people or after the conference.

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The World Society for Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products Outstanding Researcher Award

Criteria and Selection Process

The World Society for Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products (WSMBMP) Outstanding Researcher Award was established to provide recognition to persons who have conducted outstanding mushroom research over at least a 10-year period. This award is presented tri-annually and is funded by the WSMBMP.

Eligibility: All mushroom researchers with at least 10 years of research contributions are eligible. Previous recipients of the WSMBMP Outstanding Researcher Award are not eligible for nomination for six years following the receipt of this award.

Selection Criteria: Selection will be based on submitted evidence that document research excellence over at least a 10-year period in the mushroom community. Each nomination should include (1) an up-to-date curriculum vitae; (2) a one-page tabulated summary of research accomplishments; (3) list of published research work; (4) two letters of recommendation, including one from the nominator; (5) a list of all research awards, received or nominated; and (6) a one page summary of the nominees' perceptions of his or her research activities (optional).

Selection Committee: The WSMBMP Awards Committee shall tri-annually recommend up to two awardees to the President of the WSMBMP.

Selection Process: A call for nominees will be made during January of the year of the tri-annual International Conference by the chair of the WSMBMP Awards Committee. Any member of the WSMBMP in good standing may nominate candidates for the award. The selection committee is also free to solicit additional input regarding the research record of any nominee. Based on the submitted evidence, the committee may recommend to the President up to two individuals to receive the WSMBMP Outstanding Researcher Award. The awardee(s) will be announced at the tri-annual International Conference.

The WSMBMP Awards Committee
Dr. Gerardo Mata (Mexico)
Dr. Qing Shen (China/USA)
Dr. Katsuyi Yamanaka (Japan)

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About this bulletin

The WSMBMP Bulletin is the official electronic publication of the World Society for Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products. The bulletin is intended to keep members informed about Council activities and to share general information about mushrooms. It is designed to allow communication between society members and alert them about new topics and opportunities related to mushrooms. Society members and general public are kindly invited to submit letters, comments and information of interest for the mushroom community to be published in the bulletin. Please submit your contributions electronically in free format to the editors José E. Sánchez and Helen Grogan

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